1 edition of Inbred and Genetically Defined Strains of Laboratory Animals, Part 2 found in the catalog.
Inbred and Genetically Defined Strains of Laboratory Animals, Part 2
Philip L. Altman
by Pergamon Pr
Written in English
|Contributions||Dorothy D. Katz (Editor)|
|The Physical Object|
Animal breeding, controlled propagation of domestic animals in order to improve desirable qualities. Humanity has been modifying domesticated animals to better suit human needs for centuries. Selective breeding involves using knowledge from several branches of science. These include genetics, statistics, reproductive physiology, computer science, and molecular genetics. Laboratory Animal Medicine, Third Edition, is a fully revised publication from the American College of Laboratory Medicine’s acclaimed blue book series. It presents an up-to-date volume that offers the most thorough coverage of the biology, health, and care of laboratory animals.
This book describes in vivid detail the development of defined laboratory mice, centered at the Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine. As a user of defined mouse strains for nearly forty years I have enjoyed reading the book and have recommended it to younger s: 2. 3. Inbred Strains and Hybrids Definition. Strains can be termed inbred if they have been mated brother x sister for 20 or more consecutive generations, and individuals of the strain can be traced to a single ancestral pair at the 20 th or subsequent generation. At this point the individuals' genomes will on average have only residual heterozygosity (excluding any genetic drift) and.
Inbreeding is the production of offspring from the mating or breeding of individuals or organisms that are closely related genetically. By analogy, the term is used in human reproduction, but more commonly refers to the genetic disorders and other consequences that may arise from expression of deleterious or recessive traits resulting from incestuous sexual relationships and consanguinity. 1 The Laboratory Mouse 1 Joan Staats. Mus musculus Linn. the common house mouse, has been a member of man's immediate environment for many centuries. Along with other members of the order Rodentia, rats and mice constituting the family Muridae spread with man and his commerce from their origin in Asia to all parts of the world.
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Contents. HOLDERS. xiii: INBRED AND GENETICALLY DEFINED STRAINS OF tions of the. Silver, in Brenner's Encyclopedia of Genetics (Second Edition), Introduction. An inbred strain is a population of animals that result from a process of at least 20 sequential generations of brother–sister matings.
The resultant animals are essentially clones of each other at the genetic level. When two animals have the same strain name, such as BALB/c or C57BL/6, it means that they. Most of the current definitions of inbred strains are established from rats and mice.
These rodents have short-generation intervals and sufficient numbers of offspring to allow the application of close inbreeding. In contrast, only a few strains being inbred by definition (see below) are available from hamsters or guinea pigs. Inbred strain. An inbred strain is homozygous at virtually all gene loci and also isogenic (i.e., all animals of the same strain are genetically identical).
So when 2 animals of the same inbred strain are mated, the offspring will breed true, i.e., the offspring will be genetically identical to the parents. There are no unexpressed recessive genes. InClarence Cook Little created the first inbred mouse strain, DBA, at the Bussey Institute at Harvard University while at the same time, Helen Dean King created the first inbred rat strain, PA, at The Wistar Institute (Jacob and Kwitek, ).Since then, the number of genetically modified animals used in research has risen exponentially and their use has spread far beyond genetics and.
The Jackson Laboratory Handbook on Genetically Standardized Mice. A note to our readers from the editors \爀䘀漀爀 漀瀀琀椀洀愀氀 瘀椀攀眀椀渀最 漀昀 瀀愀最攀 氀愀礀漀甀琀 椀渀 䄀搀漀戀攀 䄀挀爀漀戀愀琀Ⰰ 眀攀 爀攀挀漀洀洀攀渀搀 琀栀攀 昀漀氀氀漀眀椀渀最㨀 唀渀搀敜ഀ爀 琀栀攀 嘀椀攀眀 洀攀渀.
The definition of inbred strains is valid first of all for rats and mice. These rodents have short-generation intervals and sufficient numbers of offspring to allow the application of close inbreeding.
In contrast, only a few strains being inbred by definition (see below) are available for hamsters. Inbred Strains. Each of these three companies stocks a set of common inbred strains — including BALB/c, C57BL/6, C3H, DBA/2 and several others — as well as hybrids and non-inbred strains.
Two other U.S. companies — Hilltop Lab Animals and Life Sciences, Inc. — have more focused lists of strains with the latter devoted essentially to the sale of special. Inbred and genetically defined strains of laboratory animals.
Bethesda, Md.: Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, © (OCoLC) Online version: Inbred and genetically defined strains of laboratory animals. Bethesda, Md.: Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, © (OCoLC) Alternatively, inbred colonies provide more power and require fewer animals per experiment by limiting the noise caused by segregating genetic variation [here we define an inbred strain as the result of ≥20 generations of brother–sister mating or equivalent (Eppig ; Casellas )].
Request PDF | Genetically Defined Strains in Drug Development and Toxicity Testing | There is growing concern about the poor quality and lack of repeatability of many pre-clinical experiments.
genetically defined inbred strains should be more valuable once. were used as part of in-house safety pharmacology prior to the. the use of laboratory animals to test their safety.
Animal breeding - Animal breeding - Breeding systems: Crossbreeding involves the mating of animals from two breeds. Normally, breeds are chosen that have complementary traits that will enhance the offsprings’ economic value. An example is the crossbreeding of Yorkshire and Duroc breeds of pigs.
Yorkshires have acceptable rates of gain in muscle mass and produce large litters, and Durocs are. Various mating schemes of animals are classified under two broad categories — inbreeding and outbreeding.
Classification depends on the closeness of the biological relationship between mates. Within each category, a wide variation in intensity of this relationship exists. A very fine line separates the two categories.
Mating closely related animals (for example, parent and offspring, full. Table 1 indicates the polymorphic rate among 25 commonly used rat inbred strains.
All pairs between the strains have at least polymorphic markers (more than 30%). The average number of markers for crosses between 25 commonly used laboratory strains was ± 11 SD (%), which corresponds to an average marker density of Mb or cM.
Inbred strains, transgenic and congenic mice with inbred backgrounds are commonly used mouse models. An inbred strain is defined as a strain that has been through at least 20 generations of sib-mating (or its equivalent), making animals from the same inbred strain effectively genetically identical.
There are two types of Zucker rat: a lean Zucker rat, denoted as the dominant trait (Fa/Fa) or (Fa/fa); and the characteristically obese (or fatty) Zucker rat, which is actually a recessive trait (fa/fa) of the leptin receptor, capable of weighing up to 1 kilogram ( lb)—more than twice the average weight.The answer is with a test statistic known as the "t-test" or "Student’s t-test".
To apply this test, one needs to use a pair of only three values derived from an analysis of the expression of the trait in sets of animals from each inbred strain.
First is the number of animals examined in each inbred set (N1 and N2).A mouse or a rat strain is a group of animals that is genetically uniform. Strains are used in laboratory experiments. Mouse strains can be inbred or genetically engineered, while rat strains are usually produced by inbreeding.
Other websites. International Mouse Strain Resource (IMSR) Rat strain .